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Time Trend of the Male Proportion at Birth in Brazil, 1979-2004
Post-graduate Program in Environment and Public Health, National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Rua Leopoldo Bulhões, 1480, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21041-210, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 June 2009; Accepted: 5 August 2009 / Published: 12 August 2009
Abstract: Several studies suggest that exposure to environmental endocrine disrupters can reduce the number of male births, and therefore, the male proportion at birth (also denominated birth ratio or sex ratio at birth) can be used as a sentinel health indicator. This work aimed to analyze the trend of male births in Brazil, according to their distribution by states and capitals. An ecological descriptive time series was carried out using polynomial regression, showing a declining trend for male proportion at birth in Brazil (1979-1994), followed by an upward trend until 2004. A decline on the proportion of male births was observed in Brazil between 1979 and 1993, followed by a subsequent rise of this ratio between 1995 and 2004, wherein the mean proportion of male births in Brazil rose from 51.05 to 51.18, representing a relative increase of 0.25%. The states of São Paulo (Southwest region) and Acre (Western Amazon), as well as some capitals−Cuiabá (Western Region), Palmas (Amazon) and Rio Branco (Amazon)−showed increasing trends, which suggests the influence of socio-demographic changes. In contrast, a declining trend in the State of Ceará State (Northeast region), with a 0.35% yearly decrease was observed. As a whole, these results suggest the influence of different environmental factors (demographic changes, public health services distribution, and population exposure to endocrine disruptor substances) influencing the time trend of birth ratio in the Brazilian population during the last decades.
Keywords: birth sex ratio; male proportion at birth; endocrine disrupters; time trend
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Gibson, G.; Costa, L.S.; Koifman, S. Time Trend of the Male Proportion at Birth in Brazil, 1979-2004. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 2193-2204.
Gibson G, Costa LS, Koifman S. Time Trend of the Male Proportion at Birth in Brazil, 1979-2004. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(8):2193-2204.
Gibson, Gerusa; Costa, Luciana S.; Koifman, Sergio. 2009. "Time Trend of the Male Proportion at Birth in Brazil, 1979-2004." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 8: 2193-2204.