Next Article in Journal
Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: A Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics
Previous Article in Journal
Health Risk and Biological Effects of Cardiac Ionising Imaging: From Epidemiology to Genes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(6), 1894-1916; doi:10.3390/ijerph6061894
Review

Fish, Mercury, Selenium and Cardiovascular Risk: Current Evidence and Unanswered Questions

Received: 22 May 2009; Accepted: 4 June 2009 / Published: 23 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [477 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Controversy has arisen among the public and in the media regarding the health effects of fish intake in adults. Substantial evidence indicates that fish consumption reduces coronary heart disease mortality, the leading cause of death in developed and most developing nations. Conversely, concerns have grown regarding potential effects of exposure to mercury found in some fish. Seafood species are also rich in selenium, an essential trace element that may protect against both cardiovascular disease and toxic effects of mercury. Such protective effects would have direct implications for recommendations regarding optimal selenium intake and for assessing the potential impact of mercury exposure from fish intake in different populations. Because fish consumption appears to have important health benefits in adults, elucidating the relationships between fish intake, mercury and selenium exposure, and health risk is of considerable scientific and public health relevance. The evidence for health effects of fish consumption in adults is reviewed, focusing on the strength and consistency of evidence and relative magnitudes of effects of omega-3 fatty acids, mercury, and selenium. Given the preponderance of evidence, the focus is on cardiovascular effects, but other potential health effects, as well as potential effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in fish, are also briefly reviewed. The relevant current unanswered questions and directions of further research are summarized.
Keywords: fish; mercury; selenium; cardiovascular disease; review fish; mercury; selenium; cardiovascular disease; review
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Mozaffarian, D. Fish, Mercury, Selenium and Cardiovascular Risk: Current Evidence and Unanswered Questions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1894-1916.

AMA Style

Mozaffarian D. Fish, Mercury, Selenium and Cardiovascular Risk: Current Evidence and Unanswered Questions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(6):1894-1916.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mozaffarian, Dariush. 2009. "Fish, Mercury, Selenium and Cardiovascular Risk: Current Evidence and Unanswered Questions." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 6: 1894-1916.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert