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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1341-1357; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041341

Correlates of Persistent Smoking in Bars Subject to Smokefree Workplace Policy

Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 1995 University Avenue, Suite 450, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
Thomson Reuters, Healthcare, 5425 Hollister Avenue, Suite 140, Santa Barbara, CA 93111, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2008 / Accepted: 27 March 2009 / Published: 2 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [123 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


This study’s goal was to characterize physical and social environments of stand-alone bars associated with indoor smoking despite California’s smokefree workplace law. In a random sample of 121 stand-alone bars in San Francisco, trained observers collected data on patrons, staff, neighborhood, indoor settings and smoking behaviors. Using bivariate (chi-square) and hierarchical linear modeling analyses, we identified four correlates of patrons’ indoor smoking: 1) bars serving predominantly Asian or Irish patrons, 2) ashtrays, 3) bartender smoking, and 4) female bartenders. Public health officials charged with enforcement of smokefree bar policies may need to attend to social practices within bars, and heighten perceptions of consistent enforcement of smokefree workplace laws. View Full-Text
Keywords: Smokefree workplace policy; tobacco control; bars; smoking behavior Smokefree workplace policy; tobacco control; bars; smoking behavior
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Moore, R.S.; Lee, J.P.; Martin, S.E.; Todd, M.; Chu, B.C. Correlates of Persistent Smoking in Bars Subject to Smokefree Workplace Policy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1341-1357.

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