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Increased Mortality Associated with Well-Water Arsenic Exposure in Inner Mongolia, China
US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
Inner Mongolia Center for Endemic Disease Control and Research, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, China
Ba Men Anti Epidemic Station, Bayingnormen, Inner Mongolia, China
University of Alberta, Department of Public Health Sciences, Edmonton, Canada
Hangjin Hou Centers for Disease Control, Hangjin Hou, Inner Mongolia, China
Chinese Academy of Preventative Medicine, Institute of Environmental Health &Engineering, Beijing, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2009; Accepted: 24 February 2009 / Published: 16 March 2009
Abstract: We conducted a retrospective mortality study in an Inner Mongolian village exposed to well water contaminated by arsenic since the 1980s. Deaths occurring between January 1, 1997 and December 1, 2004 were classified according to underlying cause and water samples from household wells were tested for total arsenic. Heart disease mortality was associated with arsenic exposure, and the association strengthened with time exposed to the water source. Cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were associated with well-water arsenic exposure among those exposed 10-20 years. This is the first study to document increased arsenic-associated mortality in the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia.
Keywords: Arsenic; drinking water; China; Inner Mongolia; mortality; heart disease; cancer
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Wade, T.J.; Xia, Y.; Wu, K.; Li, Y.; Ning, Z.; Le, X.C.; Lu, X.; Feng, Y.; He, X.; Mumford, J.L. Increased Mortality Associated with Well-Water Arsenic Exposure in Inner Mongolia, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1107-1123.
Wade TJ, Xia Y, Wu K, Li Y, Ning Z, Le XC, Lu X, Feng Y, He X, Mumford JL. Increased Mortality Associated with Well-Water Arsenic Exposure in Inner Mongolia, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(3):1107-1123.
Wade, Timothy J.; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Li, Yanhong; Ning, Zhixiong; Le, X Chris; Lu, Xiufen; Feng, Yong; He, Xingzhou; Mumford, Judy L. 2009. "Increased Mortality Associated with Well-Water Arsenic Exposure in Inner Mongolia, China." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 3: 1107-1123.