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The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review
Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Ireland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2008; Accepted: 14 February 2009 / Published: 20 February 2009
Abstract: According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.
Keywords: ETS; Smoking Ban; Tobacco Control; Smoking Areas
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McNabola, A.; Gill, L.W. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 741-758.
McNabola A, Gill LW. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(2):741-758.
McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William. 2009. "The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 2: 741-758.