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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(12), 3127-3142; doi:10.3390/ijerph6123127

Toxicological Assessment of Toxic Element Residues in Swine Kidney and Its Role in Public Health Risk Assessment

1,* , 2
1 Institute of Meat Hygiene and Technology, Kaćanskog 13, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia 2 Department of Pathomorphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Oslobođenja 18, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia 3 Department for Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 10, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2009 / Revised: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 26 November 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Health)
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In order to ensure the safety of consumers in Serbia the prevalence of toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb) in swine kidney collected from three different areas in Serbia (n = 90) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Also, in order to find information on the effects of accumulation of toxic elements on swine kidney, pathohistological examination of the kidneys was performed. The presence of mercury was found in 33.3% of kidney samples in the range of 0.005–0.055 mg/kg, while the presence of cadmium was detected less often (27.7%) but in larger amounts (0.05–1.23 mg/kg). The presence of arsenic was found only in one sample, while no lead was found. The results of the metal-to-metal correlation analysis supported there were the result of different sources of contamination. Pathohistological examination of kidneys confirms tubulopathies with oedema and cell vacuolization. In addition, haemorrhages and necrosis of proximal kidney tubule cells were found. This study demonstrates that toxic elements in Serbian slaughtered pigs are found at levels comparable to those reported in other countries, and consequently the levels reported in this study do not represent a concern from a consumer safety point of view. The lack of a strong correlation between histopathological changes and the incidence of toxic elements found in this study might be explained as the result of synergism among toxic elements and other nephrotoxic compounds which enhance the toxicity of the individual toxins even at the relatively low mean concentrations observed in this study.
Keywords: toxic elements; kidney; residue; pathomorphology; swine toxic elements; kidney; residue; pathomorphology; swine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Milićević, D.R.; Jovanović, M.; Jurić, V.B.; Petrović, Z.I.; Stefanović, S.M. Toxicological Assessment of Toxic Element Residues in Swine Kidney and Its Role in Public Health Risk Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 3127-3142.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert