Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(12), 3082-3096; doi:10.3390/ijerph6123082
Article

Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area

1 Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA 2 Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 104 CPC South, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA 3 Sansom Institute for Health Research, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia 4 Axe santé des populations, CRCHUM (Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal), Montréal, Québec H2W 1V1, Canada 5 Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2009; Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 4 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Diseases and Public Health)
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Abstract: Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been linked to \"neighbourhood\" socioeconomic status (nSES), often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU) was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI) and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR). Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99), while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17). Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85) BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90), contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.
Keywords: neighbourhood; unemployment; cardiovascular diseases; residence characteristics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Naimi, A.I.; Paquet, C.; Gauvin, L.; Daniel, M. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 3082-3096.

AMA Style

Naimi AI, Paquet C, Gauvin L, Daniel M. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(12):3082-3096.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Naimi, Ashley Isaac; Paquet, Catherine; Gauvin, Lise; Daniel, Mark. 2009. "Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 12: 3082-3096.

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