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Smoking Patterns in Ghanaian Civil Servants: Changes Over Three Decades
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2008; Accepted: 6 January 2009 / Published: 9 January 2009
Abstract: The number of smokers in developing countries is expected to increase as markets in high income countries begin to decline and multinational tobacco companies shift their marketing efforts to lower income countries. We determined the prevalence and distribution of smoking in a cross-sectional study of 1,015 urban civil servants in Accra, Ghana (82.7% participation rate) in 2006. The results were compared to the findings from a previous study in 1976 of civil servants in Accra to estimate the changes in smoking patterns over a 30 year period. In our 2006 study, the smoking prevalence rate was 6.1% (95% CI: 4.8-8.9) and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.006-1.4) in men and women respectively. These figures were dramatically lower than the rates of 32% and 5.9% reported for men and women respectively in the previous study. Knowledge of the health risks associated with smoking may have contributed to the lower rates.
Keywords: Smoking; Ghana; civil servants
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MDPI and ACS Style
Addo, J.; Smeeth, L.; Leon, D.A. Smoking Patterns in Ghanaian Civil Servants: Changes Over Three Decades. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 200-208.
Addo J, Smeeth L, Leon DA. Smoking Patterns in Ghanaian Civil Servants: Changes Over Three Decades. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2009; 6(1):200-208.
Addo, Juliet; Smeeth, Liam; Leon, David A. 2009. "Smoking Patterns in Ghanaian Civil Servants: Changes Over Three Decades." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 6, no. 1: 200-208.