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Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan
Health Department, Al-Rumtha, Jordan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2007; Accepted: 4 December 2007 / Published: 31 December 2007
Abstract: This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004). The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.
Keywords: Swimming pools; sanitary standards; water quality; Jordan; Amman
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Rabi, A.; Khader, Y.; Alkafajei, A.; Aqoulah, A.A. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4, 301-306.
Rabi A, Khader Y, Alkafajei A, Aqoulah AA. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2007; 4(4):301-306.
Rabi, Atallah; Khader, Yousef; Alkafajei, Ahmed; Aqoulah, Ashraf A. 2007. "Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 4, no. 4: 301-306.