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Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - A Pilot Study
Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160014, India
Department of Community Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and research, Chandigarh-160012, India
Present: Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: / Accepted: / Published: 31 December 2007
Abstract: Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study is a cross sectional pilot study from India, an Asian country. A sample of population from an industrial town ‘Mandi Gobindgarh’ and a nonindustrial town ‘Morinda’ were selected. A cross-sectional household survey was done in both the towns. One hundred subjects were selected from each of the towns. Ambient air quality data was collected for both towns over a period of 10-months to assess seasonal variations. In the present study the average PM10 (particulate matter with ≤ 10μm aerodynamic diameter) levels in Morinda were 99.54 μg/m3 and in Mandi Gobindgarh 161.20 μg/m3. As per NAAQS the permitted levels of PM10 is 50 μg/m3 taken as annual average (arithmetic mean). Elemental analysis of the aerosol samples found the concentration levels to be higher in Mandi- Gobindgarh than Morinda. The population in Gobindgarh shows a higher prevalence of symptoms of angina and cardiovascular disease considered in the study as compared to Morinda. When the same data is viewed in terms of male and female population, the female population is found to show these symptoms marginally higher than their counterparts. Considering the results of present study it can be stated that the increased levels of different pollutants and the higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in Mandi-Gobindgarh (Industrial town) than the Morinda (Non-Industrial town) is because of the association of PM pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Keeping in view the current status of literature, further studies in this direction are needed in a country like India. Such data will also be globally relevant.
Keywords: Cardiovascular morbidity; air pollution; cross sectional study; India
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MDPI and ACS Style
Nautiyal, J.; Garg, M.L.; Kumar, M.S.; Khan, A.A.; Thakur, J.S.; Kumar, R. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - A Pilot Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4, 268-282.
Nautiyal J, Garg ML, Kumar MS, Khan AA, Thakur JS, Kumar R. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - A Pilot Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2007; 4(4):268-282.
Nautiyal, Jyoti; Garg, M. L.; Kumar, Manoj S.; Khan, Asif A.; Thakur, Jarnail S.; Kumar, Rajesh. 2007. "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - A Pilot Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 4, no. 4: 268-282.