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Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans
Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineering Research and Development Center, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-6199, USA
SpecPro, Inc., U.S. Army ERDC, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-6199, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2007; Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Abstract: Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system.
Keywords: Fecal contamination; coliforms; fecal sterols; Katrina
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Furey, J.S.; Fredrickson, H.; Foote, C.; Richmond, M. Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4, 84-92.
Furey JS, Fredrickson H, Foote C, Richmond M. Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2007; 4(2):84-92.
Furey, John S.; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret. 2007. "Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 4, no. 2: 84-92.