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Effect of Lead (Pb) Exposure on the Activity of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in Battery Manufacturing Workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with Reference to Heme biosynthesis
Department of Biochemistry, B.L.D.E.A’s Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, Pin-586103, India
Department of Biochemistry, Govt. Medical College, Dhule, Maharshtra, India
Department of Biochemistry, SDM Institute of Medical Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
Department of Physiology, Al Ameen Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka, Pin-586108, India
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2006; Accepted: 8 June 2006 / Published: 31 December 2006
Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma of battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) who were occupationally exposed to lead (Pb) over a long period of time (about 15 years). This study was also aimed to determine the Pb intoxication resulted in a disturbance of heme biosynthesis in BMW group. The blood Pb level of BMW group (n = 28) was found to be in the range of 25.8 – 78.0 μg/dL (mean + SD, 53.63 + 16.98) whereas in Pb unexposed control group (n = 35) the range was 2.8 – 22.0 μg/dL (mean + SD, 12.52 + 4.08). The blood level (Pb-B) and urinary lead level (Pb-U) were significantly increased in BMW group as compared to unexposed control. Though activated d- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities in BMW group did not show any significant change when compared to control group but activated / non activated erythrocyte – ALAD activities in BMW group showed a significant increase. Erythrocyte- zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), urinary daminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphobilinogen (PBG-U) of BMW groups elevated significantly as compared to control. A positive correlation (r = 0.66, p< 0.001) between Pb-B and ALA-U were found in BMW group but no such significant correlation (r = 0.02, p> 1.0) were observed in control group. Hematological study revealed a significant decrease of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (%) and other blood indices and a significant increase of total leucocytes count in BMW group in comparison to control group. The serum MDA content was significantly increased (p< 0.001) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte- SOD (p< 0.001) and erythrocytecatalase (p< 0.001) were significantly reduced in BMW group as compared to control group. A positive correlation (r = 0.45, p<0.02) between Pb-B and serum MDA level was observed in BMW group (Pb-B range 25.8 – 78.0 μg / dL) but such significant correlation did not notice in control group (Pb-B range 2.8 – 22.0 μg / dL).The study clearly showed an adverse effect of heme biosynthesis and imbalance of pro-oxidant / antioxidant status in lead exposed battery manufacturing workers resulting in increase in lipid peroxidation associated with decrease in erythrocyte-SOD and erythrocyte-catalase activities.
Keywords: Battery manufacturing workers (BMW); blood Pb; urine Pb; d- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase; zinc protoporphyrin; urine ALA; urine PBG; lipid peroxidation; superoxide dismutase; catalase
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Patil, A.J.; Bhagwat, V.R.; Patil, J.A.; Dongre, N.N.; Ambekar, J.G.; Jailkhani, R.; Das, K.K. Effect of Lead (Pb) Exposure on the Activity of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in Battery Manufacturing Workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with Reference to Heme biosynthesis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2006, 3, 329-337.
Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Jailkhani R, Das KK. Effect of Lead (Pb) Exposure on the Activity of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in Battery Manufacturing Workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with Reference to Heme biosynthesis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2006; 3(4):329-337.
Patil, Arun J.; Bhagwat, Vinod R.; Patil, Jyotsna A.; Dongre, Nilima N.; Ambekar, Jeevan G.; Jailkhani, Rama; Das, Kusal K. 2006. "Effect of Lead (Pb) Exposure on the Activity of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in Battery Manufacturing Workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with Reference to Heme biosynthesis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 3, no. 4: 329-337.