Next Article in Journal
Aluminium in Brain Tissue in Multiple Sclerosis
Next Article in Special Issue
Study on the Factors Affecting the Start-Up of Iron-Manganese Co-Oxide Filters for Ammonium and Manganese Removal from Groundwater
Previous Article in Journal
Socioeconomic Factors and Caries in People between 19 and 60 Years of Age: An Update of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081776

Contaminations of Soil and Two Capsicum annuum Generations Irrigated by Reused Urban Wastewater Treated by Different Reed Beds

1
Civil Engineering Research Group, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, The University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, UK
2
Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Basrah, Al Basrah 61001, Iraq
3
Division of Water Resources Engineering, Department of Building and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22100 Lund, Sweden
4
Department of Civil Engineering Science, School of Civil Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Kingsway Campus, P.O. Box 524, Aukland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Engineering)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2971 KB, uploaded 19 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Background: In order to save potable water, this study aims to evaluate the contamination of soil and Capsicum annuum L. (chilli) watered with urban wastewater (sewage) pre-treated by various wetland systems. Methods: The appropriateness of wetland outflow for irrigation when applying reused wastewater with high contamination of minerals and pathogens was assessed. The impact of wastewaters pre-treated by various wetlands on soil and harvest was tested in terms of mineral and biological contamination risk. Results: The wetlands met the standards for irrigation water for most water quality variables. However, the thresholds for key water quality parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) exceeded. The highest values for total coliforms, ammonium-nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were 157,072 CFU/100 mL, 8.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L, and 7.0 mg/L, respectively. The harvest was moderately polluted only by zinc according to vegetable quality standards (threshold of 50 mg/kg). Zinc concentrations for Filters 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were 35.8, 60.6, 65.1, 65.5 and 53.2 mg/kg, respectively. No bacterial contamination was detected. Conclusions: Treatment of domestic wastewater applying constructed wetlands and subsequent recycling of the treated wastewater for irrigation of crops is a good substitute to the traditional application of drinking water for irrigation purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: constructed wetland; cultivar; ecological engineering; irrigation water quality; sewage treatment; sustainable development; zinc constructed wetland; cultivar; ecological engineering; irrigation water quality; sewage treatment; sustainable development; zinc
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Almuktar, S.A.A.A.N.; Abed, S.N.; Scholz, M. Contaminations of Soil and Two Capsicum annuum Generations Irrigated by Reused Urban Wastewater Treated by Different Reed Beds. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1776.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top