Next Article in Journal
Impacts of Water Stress on Forest Recovery and Its Interaction with Canopy Height
Next Article in Special Issue
Social Risk Factors of Transportation PPP Projects in China: A Sustainable Development Perspective
Previous Article in Journal
Cost and Affordability of Diets Modelled on Current Eating Patterns and on Dietary Guidelines, for New Zealand Total Population, Māori and Pacific Households
Previous Article in Special Issue
Carbon Emissions in China’s Construction Industry: Calculations, Factors and Regions
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061256

Impact of Indoor Physical Environment on Learning Efficiency in Different Types of Tasks: A 3 × 4 × 3 Full Factorial Design Analysis

1
School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210003, China
2
Department of Environmental Health, Nanjing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210003, China
3
Department of Hygiene, School of Public Health, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, China
4
School of Civil Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
5
Department of Construction Management, School of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
6
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [754 KB, uploaded 13 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Indoor physical environments appear to influence learning efficiency nowadays. For improvement in learning efficiency, environmental scenarios need to be designed when occupants engage in different learning tasks. However, how learning efficiency is affected by indoor physical environment based on task types are still not well understood. The present study aims to explore the impacts of three physical environmental factors (i.e., temperature, noise, and illuminance) on learning efficiency according to different types of tasks, including perception, memory, problem-solving, and attention-oriented tasks. A 3 × 4 × 3 full factorial design experiment was employed in a university classroom with 10 subjects recruited. Environmental scenarios were generated based on different levels of temperature (17 °C, 22 °C, and 27 °C), noise (40 dB(A), 50 dB(A), 60 dB(A), and 70 dB(A)) and illuminance (60 lx, 300 lx, and 2200 lx). Accuracy rate (AC), reaction time (RT), and the final performance indicator (PI) were used to quantify learning efficiency. The results showed ambient temperature, noise, and illuminance exerted significant main effect on learning efficiency based on four task types. Significant concurrent effects of the three factors on final learning efficiency was found in all tasks except problem-solving-oriented task. The optimal environmental scenarios for top learning efficiency were further identified under different environmental interactions. The highest learning efficiency came in thermoneutral, relatively quiet, and bright conditions in perception-oriented task. Subjects performed best under warm, relatively quiet, and moderately light exposure when recalling images in the memory-oriented task. Learning efficiency peaked to maxima in thermoneutral, fairly quiet, and moderately light environment in problem-solving process while in cool, fairly quiet and bright environment with regard to attention-oriented task. The study provides guidance for building users to conduct effective environmental intervention with simultaneous controls of ambient temperature, noise, and illuminance. It contributes to creating the most suitable indoor physical environment for improving occupants learning efficiency according to different task types. The findings could further supplement the present indoor environment-related standards or norms with providing empirical reference on environmental interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: learning efficiency; task type; indoor physical environment; environmental factor; full factorial design learning efficiency; task type; indoor physical environment; environmental factor; full factorial design
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xiong, L.; Huang, X.; Li, J.; Mao, P.; Wang, X.; Wang, R.; Tang, M. Impact of Indoor Physical Environment on Learning Efficiency in Different Types of Tasks: A 3 × 4 × 3 Full Factorial Design Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1256.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top