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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020334

Comparison of Toxic Metal Distribution Characteristics and Health Risk between Cultured and Wild Fish Captured from Honghu City, China

1
Research Center for Environment and Health, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
2
School of Information and Safety Engineering, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Environmental Risk Assessment)
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Abstract

Honghu Lake, which listed in the “Ramsar Convention”, is the seventh largest freshwater lake in China and is regarded as one of the biggest freshwater product output areas in China. The toxic element distribution in cultured and wild fish and the corresponding health risks through fish consumption from Honghu area were investigated. The mean concentration in the muscle of cultured and wild fish (Carassius auratus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus) decreased in the order: Zn (18.94) > Cu (0.8489) > Cr (0.2840) > Pb (0.2052) and Zn (16.30) > Cr (1.947) > Cu (0.4166) > Pb (0.0525) > Cd (0.0060) (mean; mg/kg, wet weight). Scales (Multi factor pollution index (MPI) = 3.342) and the liver (MPI = 1.276) were regarded as the main accumulation tissues for cultured fish, and the bladder (MPI = 0.640) and intestine (MPI = 0.477) were regarded as the main accumulation tissues for wild fish. There were no obvious health risks associated with the consumption of cultured and wild fish based on the calculated results of the target hazard quotient (THQ), carcinogenic risk (CR), and estimated weekly intake (EWI). Pb and Cr were recognized as the major health risk contributors for inhabitants through wild and cultured fish consumption. Cultured fish had a greater health risk than wild fish based on the calculation results of THQ and CR. Muscle consumption resulted in more health risks than mixed edible tissues for cultured fish, but for wild fish, the conclusion was the opposite. Mixed fish (cultured:wild = 1:1) muscle consumption had relatively lower risks than the consumption of cultured or wild fish muscle separately. Consuming no more than 465 g/day (wet wt) of cultured fish muscle, 68 g/day (wet wt) of wild fish muscle, 452 g/day (wet wt) of mixed cultured fish edible tissues or 186 g/day (wet wt) of mixed wild fish edible tissues from the Honghu area can assure human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; Honghu city; aquaculture production; target hazard quotient; carcinogenic risk; estimated weekly intake heavy metals; Honghu city; aquaculture production; target hazard quotient; carcinogenic risk; estimated weekly intake
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Zhang, J.; Zhu, L.; Li, F.; Liu, C.; Qiu, Z.; Xiao, M.; Cai, Y. Comparison of Toxic Metal Distribution Characteristics and Health Risk between Cultured and Wild Fish Captured from Honghu City, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 334.

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