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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020220

Aedes Mosquitoes and Aedes-Borne Arboviruses in Africa: Current and Future Threats

1
Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
2
Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, Yaoundé PO Box 13501, Cameroon
3
Laboratoire d’Entomologie Fondamentale et Appliquée (LEFA), Université Ouaga 1 Pr Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Ouagadougou 03 BP 7021, Burkina Faso
4
Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
5
University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako BP 1805, Mali
6
Global Health and Tropical Medicine (GHTM), Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT), Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Rua da Junqueira 100, 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal
7
Insect-Virus Interactions, Department of Genomes and Genetics, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France
8
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 2000, 75015 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Epidemics of Zika? Implications for Public Health)
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Abstract

The Zika crisis drew attention to the long-overlooked problem of arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in Africa. Yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika are poorly controlled in Africa and often go unrecognized. However, to combat these diseases, both in Africa and worldwide, it is crucial that this situation changes. Here, we review available data on the distribution of each disease in Africa, their Aedes vectors, transmission potential, and challenges and opportunities for Aedes control. Data on disease and vector ranges are sparse, and consequently maps of risk are uncertain. Issues such as genetic and ecological diversity, and opportunities for integration with malaria control, are primarily African; others such as ever-increasing urbanization, insecticide resistance and lack of evidence for most control-interventions reflect problems throughout the tropics. We identify key knowledge gaps and future research areas, and in particular, highlight the need to improve knowledge of the distributions of disease and major vectors, insecticide resistance, and to develop specific plans and capacity for arboviral disease surveillance, prevention and outbreak responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Aedes formosus; Zika; dengue; chikungunya; yellow fever; vector Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Aedes formosus; Zika; dengue; chikungunya; yellow fever; vector
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Weetman, D.; Kamgang, B.; Badolo, A.; Moyes, C.L.; Shearer, F.M.; Coulibaly, M.; Pinto, J.; Lambrechts, L.; McCall, P.J. Aedes Mosquitoes and Aedes-Borne Arboviruses in Africa: Current and Future Threats. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 220.

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