Next Article in Journal
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mindfulness-Based (Baduanjin) Exercise for Alleviating Musculoskeletal Pain and Improving Sleep Quality in People with Chronic Diseases
Next Article in Special Issue
Adapting, Pilot Testing and Evaluating the Kick.it App to Support Smoking Cessation for Smokers with Severe Mental Illness: A Study Protocol
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Producers’ Exposure Level to Pesticides, in Kouka and Toussiana (Burkina Faso)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation and Implementation of a Proactive Telephone Smoking Cessation Counseling for Parents: A Study Protocol of an Effectiveness Implementation Hybrid Design
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020205

Impact of an Outdoor Smoking Ban at Secondary Schools on Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes and Water Pipe Use among Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up

1
Department Tranzo, Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tilburg University, Warandelaan 2, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands
2
Academic Collaborative Centre for Public Health Limburg, Public Health Service South Limburg (GGD ZL), 6400 AA Geleen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, 6211 LK Maastricht, The Netherlands
4
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Evaluation of New Tobacco Control Interventions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1447 KB, uploaded 29 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The effectiveness of outdoor smoking bans on smoking behavior among adolescents remains inconclusive. This study evaluates the long-term impact of outdoor school ground smoking bans among adolescents at secondary schools on the use of conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes (with/without nicotine) and water pipes. Outdoor smoking bans at 19 Dutch secondary schools were evaluated using a quasi-experimental design. Data on 7733 adolescents were obtained at baseline, and at 6 and 18-month follow-up. The impact of outdoor smoking bans on ‘ever use of conventional cigarettes’, ‘smoking onset’, ‘ever use of e-cigarette with nicotine’, ‘e-cigarette without nicotine’, and ‘water pipe’ was measured. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used. At schools with a ban, implementation fidelity was checked. At schools where a ban was implemented, at 18-month follow-up more adolescents had started smoking compared to the control condition. No effect of implementation of the ban was found for smoking prevalence, e-cigarettes with/without nicotine, and water pipe use. Implementation fidelity was sufficient. No long-term effects were found of an outdoor smoking ban, except for smoking onset. The ban might cause a reversal effect when schools encounter difficulties with its enforcement or when adolescents still see others smoking. Additional research is required with a longer follow-up than 18 months. View Full-Text
Keywords: school-based intervention; prevention; tobacco control; adolescents; school smoking policies; smoking prevalence; smoke-free; quasi-experimental design; outdoor school ground; secondary schools school-based intervention; prevention; tobacco control; adolescents; school smoking policies; smoking prevalence; smoke-free; quasi-experimental design; outdoor school ground; secondary schools
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rozema, A.D.; Hiemstra, M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Jansen, M.W.J.; van Oers, H.J.A.M. Impact of an Outdoor Smoking Ban at Secondary Schools on Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes and Water Pipe Use among Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 205.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top