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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010119

Evaluation of Controlled Release Urea on the Dynamics of Nitrate, Ammonium, and Its Nitrogen Release in Black Soils of Northeast China

Laboratory of Biomass & Bioprocessing Engineering, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, (East Campus), Beijing 100083, China
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Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Abstract

Controlled release urea (CRU) is considered to enhance crop yields while alleviating negative environmental problems caused by the hazardous gas emissions that are associated with high concentrations of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3) in black soils. Short-term effects of sulfur-coated urea (SCU) and polyurethane-coated urea (PCU), compared with conventional urea, on NO3 and NH4+ in black soils were studied through the buried bag experiment conducted in an artificial climate chamber. We also investigated nitrogen (N) release kinetics of CRU and correlations between the cumulative N release rate and concentrations of NO3 and NH4+. CRU can reduce concentrations of NO3 and NH4+, and PCU was more effective in maintaining lower soil NO3/NH4+ ratios than SCU and U. Parabolic equation could describe the kinetics of NO3 and NH4+ treated with PCU. The Elovich equation could describe the kinetics of NO3 and NH4+ treated with SCU. The binary linear regression model was established to predict N release from PCU because of significant correlations between the cumulative N release rate and concentrations of NO3 and NH4+. These results provided a methodology and data support for characterizing and predicting the N release from PCU in black soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: black soils; controlled release urea; nitrate; ammonium; kinetics; correlation black soils; controlled release urea; nitrate; ammonium; kinetics; correlation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Tong, X.; He, X.; Duan, H.; Han, L.; Huang, G. Evaluation of Controlled Release Urea on the Dynamics of Nitrate, Ammonium, and Its Nitrogen Release in Black Soils of Northeast China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 119.

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