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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091065

Use of Principal Components Analysis and Kriging to Predict Groundwater-Sourced Rural Drinking Water Quality in Saskatchewan

1
Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada
2
School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [13877 KB, uploaded 15 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Groundwater drinking water supply surveillance data were accessed to summarize water quality delivered as public and private water supplies in southern Saskatchewan as part of an exposure assessment for epidemiologic analyses of associations between water quality and type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Arsenic in drinking water has been linked to a variety of chronic diseases and previous studies have identified multiple wells with arsenic above the drinking water standard of 0.01 mg/L; therefore, arsenic concentrations were of specific interest. Principal components analysis was applied to obtain principal component (PC) scores to summarize mixtures of correlated parameters identified as health standards and those identified as aesthetic objectives in the Saskatchewan Drinking Water Quality Standards and Objective. Ordinary, universal, and empirical Bayesian kriging were used to interpolate arsenic concentrations and PC scores in southern Saskatchewan, and the results were compared. Empirical Bayesian kriging performed best across all analyses, based on having the greatest number of variables for which the root mean square error was lowest. While all of the kriging methods appeared to underestimate high values of arsenic and PC scores, empirical Bayesian kriging was chosen to summarize large scale geographic trends in groundwater-sourced drinking water quality and assess exposure to mixtures of trace metals and ions. View Full-Text
Keywords: exposure assessment; groundwater; water quality; arsenic; principal components analysis; kriging; geostatistics; Saskatchewan exposure assessment; groundwater; water quality; arsenic; principal components analysis; kriging; geostatistics; Saskatchewan
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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McLeod, L.; Bharadwaj, L.; Epp, T.; Waldner, C.L. Use of Principal Components Analysis and Kriging to Predict Groundwater-Sourced Rural Drinking Water Quality in Saskatchewan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1065.

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