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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091017

Effects of Visual Stimulation with Bonsai Trees on Adult Male Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

1
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Higashigaoka 2-5-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8902, Japan
2
Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, 6-2-1 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882, Japan
3
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
4
Le Verseau Inc., 3-19-4 Miyasaka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-0051, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract

Nature therapy has been demonstrated to induce physiological relaxation. The psychophysiological effects of nature therapy (stimulation with bonsai trees) on adult male patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) were examined. Oxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy, and heart rate variability was analyzed. Psychological responses were evaluated using the modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscale scores. Visual stimulation of adult male patients with SCI elicited significantly decreased left prefrontal cortex activity, increased parasympathetic nervous activity, decreased sympathetic nervous activity, increased positive feelings, and resulted in lower negative POMS subscale scores. Nature therapy can lead to a state of physiological and psychological relaxation in patients with SCI. View Full-Text
Keywords: spinal cord injury; nature therapy; bonsai trees; visual stimulation; near-infrared spectroscopy; heart rate variability spinal cord injury; nature therapy; bonsai trees; visual stimulation; near-infrared spectroscopy; heart rate variability
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Ochiai, H.; Song, C.; Ikei, H.; Imai, M.; Miyazaki, Y. Effects of Visual Stimulation with Bonsai Trees on Adult Male Patients with Spinal Cord Injury. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1017.

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