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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 880; doi:10.3390/ijerph14080880

Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs

1
Section of Geriatric Dentistry, Department of General Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan
2
Sugiyama Dental Clinic, Yachiyo 276-0027, Japan
3
Section of Oral Public Health, Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zubair Kabir
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4708 KB, uploaded 4 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

The presence of any age-related differences in gingival pigmentation associated with smoking, particularly in a young population, remains to be fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related differences in smoking gingival pigmentation. Gingival pigmentation was analyzed using the gingival melanosis record (GMR) and Hedin’s classification with frontal oral photographs taken at 16 dental offices in Japan. Participants were categorized into 10-year age groups, and their baseline photographs were compared. In addition, to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation, subjects were divided into a former smoker group (stopped smoking) and current smoker group. A total of 259 patients 19 to 79 years of age were analyzed. People in their 30s showed the most widespread gingival pigmentation. In addition, subjects in their 20s showed a weak effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation. These findings suggested that the gingival pigmentation induced by smoking was more remarkable in young people than in middle-aged people. This information may be useful for anti-smoking education, especially among young populations with a high affinity for smoking. View Full-Text
Keywords: gingival melanosis; age difference; smoking; clinical oral photographs gingival melanosis; age difference; smoking; clinical oral photographs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kato, T.; Mizutani, S.; Takiuchi, H.; Sugiyama, S.; Hanioka, T.; Naito, T. Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 880.

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