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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 771; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070771

Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes

Department of Geography & Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2066 Natural History Building, 1301 W. Green St. Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes and Human Health)
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Abstract

Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers’ exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account. View Full-Text
Keywords: greenness; green space; street trees; blue space; birth outcomes; preterm birth; term birthweight; term low birthweight; small for gestational age greenness; green space; street trees; blue space; birth outcomes; preterm birth; term birthweight; term low birthweight; small for gestational age
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Abelt, K.; McLafferty, S. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 771.

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