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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 667; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060667

Toxicity of Naphthalene and Benzene on Tribollium castaneum Herbst

1
Environmental and Computational Chemistry Group, Campus of Zaragocilla, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Cartagena, Cartagena 130001, Colombia
2
Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Group, School of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine, University of Sucre, Sincelejo 700003, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 4 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

Naphthalene and benzene are widely-used volatile organic compounds. The aim of this research was to examine the toxicological effects of naphthalene and benzene against Tribolium castaneum as an animal model. Adult insects were exposed to these aromatic compounds to assess mortality after 4–48 h of exposure. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for naphthalene, naphthalin, and benzene were 63.6 µL/L, 20.0 µL/L, and 115.9 µL/L in air, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed expression changes in genes related to oxidative stress and metabolism [Glutathione S-Transferase (Gst), and Cytochrome P450 6BQ8 (Cyp6bq8)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Hormone receptor in 39-like protein (Hr39), Ecdysone receptor: (Ecr), and Chitin synthase 2 (Chs2)]; and neurotransmission [Histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2)] in insects exposed for 4 h to 70.2 µL/L naphthalene. Adults exposed to benzene (80 µL/L; 4 h) overexpressed genes related to neurotransmission [GABA-gated anion channel (Rdl), Hiscl2, and GABA-gated ion channel (Grd)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Ultraspiracle nuclear receptor (USP), Ecr; and Hr39]; and development (Chs2). The data presented here provides evidence that naphthalene and benzene inhalation are able to induce alterations on reproduction, development, metamorphosis, oxidative stress, metabolism, neurotransmission, and death of the insect. View Full-Text
Keywords: naphthalene; naphthalin; benzene; mortality; gene expression; abnormalities naphthalene; naphthalin; benzene; mortality; gene expression; abnormalities
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pajaro-Castro, N.; Caballero-Gallardo, K.; Olivero-Verbel, J. Toxicity of Naphthalene and Benzene on Tribollium castaneum Herbst. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 667.

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