Enhancement of X-ray Induced Apoptosis by Mobile Phone-Like Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cells
AbstractTo explore the combined effects of environmental radio-frequency (RF) field and X-ray, mouse spermatocyte-derived (GC-1) cells were exposed to 1950 MHz RF field at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3 W/kg for 24 h combined with or without X-ray irradiation at 6 Gy. After treatment, the cell proliferation level was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) Assay and 5-Bromo-2-deoxy Uridine (BrdU) enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) Assay. The apoptosis level was detected by annexin V flow cytometry assay, transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) Assay and Caspase-3 Activity Assay. It was found that the proliferation and apoptosis level did not change in GC-1 cells after RF exposure alone. However, compared with the X-ray group, the proliferation level significantly decreased and the apoptotic rate significantly increased in the RF+X-ray group. Moreover, a significant decrease in Bcl-2 protein expression and increase in Bax protein expression were observed. The findings suggested that RF exposure at SAR of 3 W/kg did not affect apoptosis and proliferation in GC-1 cells by itself, but that it did enhance the effects of X-ray induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis, in which B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) might be involved. View Full-Text
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Zhang, K.-Y.; Xu, H.; Du, L.; Xing, J.-L.; Zhang, B.; Bai, Q.-S.; Xu, Y.-Q.; Zhou, Y.-C.; Zhang, J.-P.; Zhou, Y.; Ding, G.-R. Enhancement of X-ray Induced Apoptosis by Mobile Phone-Like Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 616.
Zhang K-Y, Xu H, Du L, Xing J-L, Zhang B, Bai Q-S, Xu Y-Q, Zhou Y-C, Zhang J-P, Zhou Y, Ding G-R. Enhancement of X-ray Induced Apoptosis by Mobile Phone-Like Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(6):616.Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhang, Ke-Ying; Xu, Hui; Du, Le; Xing, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Bin; Bai, Qiang-Shan; Xu, Yu-Qiao; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Jun-Ping; Zhou, Yan; Ding, Gui-Rong. 2017. "Enhancement of X-ray Induced Apoptosis by Mobile Phone-Like Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cells." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14, no. 6: 616.
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