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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 615; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060615

Environmental Factors Associated with Type 1 Diabetes Development: A Case Control Study in Egypt

1
Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 3551, Egypt
3
Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Community and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine (for girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11651, Egypt
5
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine (for girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11651, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [284 KB, uploaded 7 June 2017]

Abstract

Uncertainty still exists regarding the role of some environmental risk in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) both globally and in Egypt. The objective here was to explore the potential environmental risk factors associated with the development of T1DM among children in Egypt. A case-controlled study of 204 T1DM children and an equal number of age and sex-matched controls was conducted in Assiut, Egypt. Data regarding the parental, gestational, neonatal, and childhood possible risk factors for T1DM were evaluated. The final sex adjusted multivariable logistic regression model revealed that the risk for T1DM was significantly higher among rural residents (aOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.30–4.25), those with parental history of T1DM (aOR = 9.03, 95% CI: 1.02–83.32), birth through cesarean section (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.09–5.03), and having history of early introduction of cow milk in the first year of life (aOR = 19.49, 95% CI: 8.73–45.53). On the other hand, a protective effect was observed between at least six months’ breastfeeding, vitamin D supplementation in the first year of life, high physical activity, and the development of T1DM. Educational programs should be adopted to improve awareness and knowledge of the parents to avoid the increased risk factors and encourage protective practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; environment; risk factors; Egypt; children type 1 diabetes; environment; risk factors; Egypt; children
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Awadalla, N.J.; Hegazy, A.A.; Abd El-Salam, M.; Elhady, M. Environmental Factors Associated with Type 1 Diabetes Development: A Case Control Study in Egypt. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 615.

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