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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 471; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050471

The Relationship of PM Variation with Visibility and Mixing-Layer Height under Hazy/Foggy Conditions in the Multi-Cities of Northeast China

State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather (LASW) and Institute of Atmospheric Composition, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, CMA, Beijing 100081, China
Institute of Atmospheric Environment, China Meteorological Administration, Shenyang 110016, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael S. Breen
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3086 KB, uploaded 29 April 2017]   |  


The variations of visibility, PM-mass concentration and mixing-layer height (MLH) in four major urban/industry regions (Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun) of central Liaoning in Northeast China are evaluated from 2009 to 2012 to characterize their dynamic effect on air pollution. The annual mean visibilities are about 13.7 ± 7.8, 13.5 ± 6.5, 12.8 ± 6.1 and 11.5 ± 6.8 km in Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun, respectively. The pollution load (PM × MLH) shows a weaker vertical diffusion in Anshan, with a higher PM concentration near the surface. High concentrations of fine-mode particles may be partially attributed to the biomass-burning emissions from September in Liaoning Province and surrounding regions in Northeast China as well as the coal burning during the heating period with lower MLH in winter. The visibility on non-hazy fog days is about 2.5–3.0 times higher than that on hazy and foggy days. The fine-particle concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 on hazy and foggy days are ~1.8–1.9 times and ~1.5 times higher than those on non-hazy foggy days. The MLH declined more severely during fog pollution than in haze pollution. The results of this study can provide useful information to better recognize the effects of vertical pollutant diffusion on air quality in the multi-cities of central Liaoning Province in Northeast China. View Full-Text
Keywords: visibility; PM; MLH; multi-cities; Northeast China visibility; PM; MLH; multi-cities; Northeast China

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, H.; Che, H.; Ma, Y.; Wang, Y.; Yang, H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X. The Relationship of PM Variation with Visibility and Mixing-Layer Height under Hazy/Foggy Conditions in the Multi-Cities of Northeast China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 471.

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