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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 461; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050461

Association of Long-Term Near-Highway Exposure to Ultrafine Particles with Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes and Hypertension

1
Department of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
2
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
3
Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
5
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
6
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
7
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
8
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
9
Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
10
Jonathan M. Tisch College of Civic Life, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 22 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract

Ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations are elevated near busy roadways, however, their effects on prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension are not well understood. To investigate these associations, data on demographics, diseases, medication use, and time of activities were collected by in-home surveys for 704 participants in three pairs of near-highway and urban background neighborhoods in and near Boston (MA, USA). Body mass index (BMI) was measured for a subset of 435 participants. Particle number concentration (PNC, a measure of UFP) was collected by mobile monitoring in each area. Intra-neighborhood spatial-temporal regression models (approximately 20 m resolution) were used to estimate hourly ambient PNC at the residences of participants. We used participant time activity information to adjust annual average residential PNC values and assign individualized time activity adjusted annual average PNC exposures (TAA-PNC). Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found an odds ratio (OR) of 1.35 (95% CI: 0.83, 2.22) of TAA-PNC with stroke and ischemic heart diseases (S/IHD), an OR of 1.14 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.62) with hypertension, and an OR of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.10) for diabetes. A subset analysis controlling for BMI produced slightly stronger associations for S/IHD (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.88, 2.92) and hypertension (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.02), and no association with diabetes (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.61, 1.96). Further research is needed with larger sample sizes and longitudinal follow-up. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrafine particles; ischemic heart disease; diabetes; hypertension; time-activity adjusted particle number concentration ultrafine particles; ischemic heart disease; diabetes; hypertension; time-activity adjusted particle number concentration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Lane, K.J.; Corlin, L.; Patton, A.P.; Durant, J.L.; Thanikachalam, M.; Woodin, M.; Wang, M.; Brugge, D. Association of Long-Term Near-Highway Exposure to Ultrafine Particles with Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes and Hypertension. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 461.

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