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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 440; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040440

Evaluation of the Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter on Bone Marrow-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSCs): Cellular, Molecular and Systems Biological Approaches

Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80208, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
New York University School of Medicine, Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York, NY 10987, USA
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Particulate matter (PM) contains heavy metals that affect various cellular functions and gene expression associated with a range of acute and chronic diseases in humans. However, the specific effects they exert on the stem cells remain unclear. Here, we report the effects of PM collected from the city of Jeddah on proliferation, cell death, related gene expression and systems of biological analysis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), with the aim of understanding the underlying mechanisms. PM2.5 and PM10 were tested in vitro at various concentrations (15 to 300 µg/mL) and durations (24 to 72 h). PMs induced cellular stress including membrane damage, shrinkage and death. Lower concentrations of PM2.5 increased proliferation of BM-MSCs, while higher concentrations served to decrease it. PM10 decreased BM-MSCs proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis showed that PM contains high levels of heavy metals. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and hierarchical clustering analyses demonstrated that heavy metals were associated with signaling pathways involving cell stress/death, cancer and chronic diseases. qRT-PCR results showed differential expression of the apoptosis genes (BCL2, BAX); inflammation associated genes (TNF-α and IL-6) and the cell cycle regulation gene (p53). We conclude that PM causes inflammation and cell death, and thereby predisposes to chronic debilitating diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; BM-MSCs; cell proliferation; cell death; qRT-PCR; IPA particulate matter; BM-MSCs; cell proliferation; cell death; qRT-PCR; IPA

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Abu-Elmagd, M.; Alghamdi, M.A.; Shamy, M.; Khoder, M.I.; Costa, M.; Assidi, M.; Kadam, R.; Alsehli, H.; Gari, M.; Pushparaj, P.N.; Kalamegam, G.; Al-Qahtani, M.H. Evaluation of the Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter on Bone Marrow-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSCs): Cellular, Molecular and Systems Biological Approaches. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 440.

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