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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 323; doi:10.3390/ijerph14030323

An Eco-Safety Assessment of Glyoxal-Containing Cellulose Ether on Freeze-Dried Microbial Strain, Cyanobacteria, Daphnia, and Zebrafish

1
Environmental Safety Group, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Europe, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
2
Lotte Fine Chemicals Co., Ltd., Ulsan 44714, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1503 KB, uploaded 21 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the aquatic-toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether with four different glyoxal concentrations (0%, 1.4%, 2.3%, and 6.3%) in response to global chemical regulations, e.g., European Union Classification, Labeling and Packaging (EU CLP). Toxicity tests of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether on 11 different microbial strains, Microcystis aeruginosa, Daphnia magna, and zebrafish embryos were designed as an initial stage of toxicity screening and performed in accordance with standardized toxicity test guidelines. Glyoxal-containing cellulose ether showed no significant toxic effects in the toxicity tests of the 11 freeze-dried microbial strains, Daphnia magna, and zebrafish embryos. Alternatively, 6.3% glyoxal-containing cellulose ether led to a more than 60% reduction in Microcystis aeruginosa growth after 7 days of exposure. Approximately 10% of the developmental abnormalities (e.g., bent spine) in zebrafish embryos were also observed in the group exposed to 6.3% glyoxal-containing cellulose ether after 6 days of exposure. These results show that 6.3% less glyoxal-containing cellulose ether has no acute toxic effects on aquatic organisms. However, 6.3% less glyoxal-containing cellulose ether may affect the health of aquatic organisms with long-term exposure. In order to better evaluate the eco-safety of cellulosic products containing glyoxal, further studies regarding the toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether with long-term exposure are required. The results from this study allow us to evaluate the aquatic-toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulosic products, under EU chemical regulations, on the health of aquatic organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic-toxic effects; EU chemical regulation; glyoxal-containing cellulose ether aquatic-toxic effects; EU chemical regulation; glyoxal-containing cellulose ether
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, C.-B.; Song, M.J.; Choi, N.W.; Kim, S.; Jeon, H.P.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y. An Eco-Safety Assessment of Glyoxal-Containing Cellulose Ether on Freeze-Dried Microbial Strain, Cyanobacteria, Daphnia, and Zebrafish. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 323.

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