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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 318; doi:10.3390/ijerph14030318

Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ulf-G. Gerdtham
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Health Services and Health Economics Research)
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Abstract

In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: places; smoking; environment; tobacco control; tobacco price; smoking cessation policies; secondhand smoke places; smoking; environment; tobacco control; tobacco price; smoking cessation policies; secondhand smoke
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ballester, L.S.; Auchincloss, A.H.; Robinson, L.F.; Mayne, S.L. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 318.

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