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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 294; doi:10.3390/ijerph14030294

HIV Education and Welfare Services in Primary Care: An Empirical Model of Integration in Brazil’s Unified Health System

1
Department of Social Work, Community of College and Public Affairs, Binghamton University, 67 Washington St, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
2
School of Social Work, University of Michigan, 1080 S University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
3
Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University, 722 West 168th St. New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peng Bi
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Abstract

Integration of health education and welfare services in primary care systems is a key strategy to solve the multiple determinants of chronic diseases, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, there is a scarcity of conceptual models from which to build integration strategies. We provide a model based on cross-sectional data from 168 Community Health Agents, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians in two municipalities in Brazil’s Unified Health System (UHS). The outcome, service integration, comprised HIV education, community activities (e.g., health walks and workshops), and documentation services (e.g., obtainment of working papers and birth certificates). Predictors included individual factors (provider confidence, knowledge/skills, perseverance, efficacy); job characteristics (interprofessional collaboration, work-autonomy, decision-making autonomy, skill variety); and organizational factors (work conditions and work resources). Structural equation modeling was used to identify factors associated with service integration. Knowledge and skills, skill variety, confidence, and perseverance predicted greater integration of HIV education alongside community activities and documentation services. Job characteristics and organizational factors did not predict integration. Our study offers an explanatory model that can be adapted to examine other variables that may influence integration of different services in global primary healthcare systems. Findings suggest that practitioner trainings to improve integration should focus on cognitive constructs—confidence, perseverance, knowledge, and skills. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; social services; service integration; interprofessional collaboration HIV/AIDS; social services; service integration; interprofessional collaboration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahman, R.; Pinto, R.M.; Wall, M.M. HIV Education and Welfare Services in Primary Care: An Empirical Model of Integration in Brazil’s Unified Health System. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 294.

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