Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Journal
Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1511; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121511

The Metal Neurotoxins: An Important Role in Current Human Neural Epidemics?

Materials Research Laboratory, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5121, USA
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [799 KB, uploaded 5 December 2017]   |  


Many published studies have illustrated that several of the present day neurological epidemics (autism, attention deficit disorder, Alzheimer’s) cannot be correlated to any single neurotoxicant. However, the present scientific examination of the numerous global blood monitoring databases for adults that include the concentrations of the neurotoxic elements, aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) clearly indicate that, when considered in combination, for some, the human body may become easily over-burdened. This can be explained by changes in modern lifestyles. Similar data, solely for pregnant women, have been examined confirming this. All these elements are seen to be present in the human body and at not insignificant magnitudes. Currently suggested minimum risk levels (MRL) for humans are discussed and listed together with averages of the reported distributions, together with their spread and maximum values. One observation is that many distributions for pregnant women are not too dissimilar from those of general populations. Women obviously have their individual baseline of neurotoxin values before pregnancy and any efforts to modify this to any significant degree is not yet clearly apparent. For any element, distribution shapes are reasonably similar showing broad distributions with extended tails with numerous outlier values. There are a certain fraction of people that lie well above the MRL values and may be at risk, especially if genetically susceptible. Additionally, synergistic effects between neurotoxins and with other trace metals are now also being reported. It appears prudent for women of child-bearing age to establish their baseline values well before pregnancy. Those at risk then can be better identified. Adequate instrumental testing now is commercially available for this. In addition, directives are necessary for vaccination programs to use only non-neurotoxic adjuvants, especially for young children and all women of child-bearing ages. Additionally, clearer directives concerning fish consumption must now be reappraised. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurotoxicants; biomarker body levels; minimum risk levels (MRLs); pregnancy; over-burdens; synergism; vaccines; fish diets; risk factors neurotoxicants; biomarker body levels; minimum risk levels (MRLs); pregnancy; over-burdens; synergism; vaccines; fish diets; risk factors

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schofield, K. The Metal Neurotoxins: An Important Role in Current Human Neural Epidemics? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1511.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top