Next Article in Journal
Efficient Removal of Tetracycline from Aqueous Media with a Fe3O4 Nanoparticles@graphene Oxide Nanosheets Assembly
Previous Article in Journal
Research and Development of a DNDC Online Model for Farmland Carbon Sequestration and GHG Emissions Mitigation in China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1494; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121494

A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids’ Choice Restaurant Program

Graduate School of Public Health and the Institute for Behavioral and Community Health (IBACH), San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
Marketing Department, Fowler College of Business and IBACH, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
IBACH, San Diego State University Research Foundation, 9245 Sky Park Court, Suite 220, San Diego, CA 92123, USA
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, Family Medicine and Public Health, 9500 Gilman Drive, #0725, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Environment, Diet, and Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2943 KB, uploaded 4 December 2017]   |  


Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants. View Full-Text
Keywords: restaurant; food availability; food marketing; child menu restaurant; food availability; food marketing; child menu

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ayala, G.X.; Castro, I.A.; Pickrel, J.L.; Lin, S.-F.; Williams, C.B.; Madanat, H.; Jun, H.-J.; Zive, M. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids’ Choice Restaurant Program. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1494.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top