Next Article in Journal
Factors Effecting the Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC) Concentrations in Slovak Households
Previous Article in Journal
Cross-National Systematic Review of Neonatal Mortality and Postnatal Newborn Care: Special Focus on Pakistan
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121440

Association of Emotional Labor and Occupational Stressors with Depressive Symptoms among Women Sales Workers at a Clothing Shopping Mall in the Republic of Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Psychiatry, Mentors Hospital, Seoul 02617, Korea
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan 15459, Korea
3
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul 07985, Korea
4
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang 14068, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [290 KB, uploaded 24 November 2017]

Abstract

In the distribution service industry, sales people often experience multiple occupational stressors such as excessive emotional labor, workplace mistreatment, and job insecurity. The present study aimed to explore the associations of these stressors with depressive symptoms among women sales workers at a clothing shopping mall in Korea. A cross sectional study was conducted on 583 women who consist of clothing sales workers and manual workers using a structured questionnaire to assess demographic factors, occupational stressors, and depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the association of these stressors with depressive symptoms. Scores for job stress subscales such as job demand, job control, and job insecurity were higher among sales workers than among manual workers (p < 0.01). The multiple regression analysis revealed the association between occupation and depressive symptoms after controlling for age, educational level, cohabiting status, and occupational stressors (sβ = 0.08, p = 0.04). A significant interaction effect between occupation and social support was also observed in this model (sβ = −0.09, p = 0.02). The multiple regression analysis stratified by occupation showed that job demand, job insecurity, and workplace mistreatment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both occupations (p < 0.05), although the strength of statistical associations were slightly different. We found negative associations of social support (sβ = −0.22, p < 0.01) and emotional effort (sβ = −0.17, p < 0.01) with depressive symptoms in another multiple regression model for sales workers. Emotional dissonance (sβ = 0.23, p < 0.01) showed positive association with depressive symptoms in this model. The result of this study indicated that reducing occupational stressors would be effective for women sales workers to prevent depressive symptoms. In particular, promoting social support could be the most effective way to promote women sales workers’ mental health. View Full-Text
Keywords: emotional labor; job insecurity; social support; workplace mistreatment depressive symptoms; women sales workers emotional labor; job insecurity; social support; workplace mistreatment depressive symptoms; women sales workers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chung, Y.-J.; Jung, W.-C.; Kim, H.; Cho, S.-S. Association of Emotional Labor and Occupational Stressors with Depressive Symptoms among Women Sales Workers at a Clothing Shopping Mall in the Republic of Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1440.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top