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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111350

Spatiotemporal Association of Real-Time Concentrations of Black Carbon (BC) with Fine Particulate Matters (PM2.5) in Urban Hotspots of South Korea

Department of Environment Health Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan 31538, Korea
(Currently) Division of Environmental Health Research, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Korea.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Abstract

We evaluated the spatiotemporal distributions of black carbon (BC) and particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 m (PM2.5) concentrations at urban diesel engine emission (DEE) hotspots of South Korea. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 were measured at the entrance gate of two diesel bus terminals and a train station, in 2014. Measurements were conducted simultaneously at the hotspot (Site 1) and at its adjacent, randomly selected, residential areas, apartment complex near major roadways, located with the same direction of 300 m (Site 2) and 500 m (Site 3) away from Site 1 on 4 different days over the season, thrice per day; morning (n = 120 measurements for each day and site), evening (n = 120), and noon (n = 120). The median (interquartile range) PM2.5 ranged from 12.6 (11.3–14.3) to 60.1 (47.0–76.0) μg/m3 while those of BC concentrations ranged from 2.6 (1.9–3.7) to 6.3 (4.2–10.3) μg/m3. We observed a strong relationship of PM2.5 concentrations between sites (slopes 0.89–0.9, the coefficient of determination 0.89–0.96) while the relationship for BC concentrations between sites was relatively weak (slopes 0.76–0.85, the coefficient of determination 0.54–0.72). PM2.5 concentrations were changed from 4% to 140% by unit increase of BC concentration, depending on site and time while likely supporting the necessity of monitoring of BC as well as PM2.5, especially at urban DEE related hotspot areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: black carbon; PM2.5; diesel engine emissions; spatiotemporal distribution; urban air pollution black carbon; PM2.5; diesel engine emissions; spatiotemporal distribution; urban air pollution
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Kim, S.; Yu, S.; Yun, D. Spatiotemporal Association of Real-Time Concentrations of Black Carbon (BC) with Fine Particulate Matters (PM2.5) in Urban Hotspots of South Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1350.

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