Next Article in Journal
Prevalence and Determinants of Current Smoking and Intention to Smoke among Secondary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Han and Tujia Nationalities in China
Previous Article in Journal
New Instrument to Measure Hospital Patient Experiences in Flanders
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111318

Molecular Analysis of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 Genes in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with Regard to Metabolic Parameters and Selected Hormone Levels

1
Department of Histology and Developmental Biology, Pomeranian Medical University, 70-210 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Medical Rehabilitation and Clinical Physiotherapy, Pomeranian Medical University, 70-210 Szczecin, Poland
3
Independent Laboratory of Health Promotion, Pomeranian Medical University, 70-103 Szczecin, Poland
4
Department of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland
5
Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Pomeranian Medical University, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland
6
Department of Urology and Urological Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
7
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pomeranian Medical University, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jon Øyvind Odland
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [317 KB, uploaded 30 October 2017]

Abstract

Introduction: The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not so far been fully explicated. However, it is assumed that changes in the levels of hormones associated with aging can contribute to the development of prostatic hyperplasia. Dihydrotestosterone combines with the androgen receptor (AR) proteins of the prostate gland. Enzyme activity is based on two isoenzymes: type 1 and type 2. 5α-reductase type 1 is encoded by the SRD5A1 gene, and type 2 is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of the SRD5A1 (rs6884552, rs3797177) and SRD5A2 (rs523349, rs12470143) genes’ polymorphisms, and to assess the relationships between the genotypes of the tested mutations, and the levels of biochemical and hormonal parameters in patients with BPH. Material and Methods: The study involved 299 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We determined the serum levels of particular biochemical parameters—fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG)—by the spectrophotometric method, using ready reagent kits. The ELISA method was used to determine the levels of the following hormonal parameters and proteins: total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), insulin (I), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone binding protein (SHBG). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed. Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR. Results: We analyzed the relationships between the incidence of particular diseases and the genotypes of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 polymorphisms among patients with BPH. The BPH patients with the CC genotype of the SRD5A2 rs523349 and rs12470143 polymorphisms were considerably less frequently diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (p = 0.022 and p = 0.023 respectively). Our analysis revealed that homozygotes with the CC of the SDR5A2 rs12470143 polymorphism had visibly higher HDL levels than those with the TT and CT genotypes (p = 0.001). Additionally, we found that the patients with the CC genotype of the SDR5A2 rs12470143 polymorphism had considerably higher FT levels (p = 0.001) than the heterozygotes with the CT and the homozygotes with the TT of the genetic variant analyzed in our study. Furthermore, the patients with at least one G allele of the SRD5A2 rs523349 polymorphism had significantly lower SGBG levels (p = 0.022) compared with the homozygotes with the CC genotype. The presence of at least one A allele (AA + AG genotypes) of the SRD5A1 rs3797177 polymorphism entailed notably lower serum insulin levels than those observed in homozygotes with the GG genotype (p = 0.033). Conclusions: The study described in this article shows that selected SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 polymorphisms can alter the levels of metabolic and hormonal parameters in patients with BPH. Special attention should be paid to the SDR5A2 rs12470143 polymorphism, which is associated with a change in lipid profile, as well as with the inheritance and incidence rate of MetS among these patients. An analysis of the frequency of this polymorphism among BPH patients could be useful in estimating the risk of getting ill, and planning therapies of concomitant diseases for BPH patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia; SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes; metabolic disorders; hormones benign prostatic hyperplasia; SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes; metabolic disorders; hormones
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rył, A.; Rotter, I.; Grzywacz, A.; Małecka, I.; Skonieczna-Żydecka, K.; Grzesiak, K.; Słojewski, M.; Szylińska, A.; Sipak-Szmigiel, O.; Piasecka, M.; Walczakiewicz, K.; Laszczyńska, M. Molecular Analysis of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 Genes in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with Regard to Metabolic Parameters and Selected Hormone Levels. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1318.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top