Next Article in Journal
Antibiotic Self-Medication among Non-Medical University Students in Punjab, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Next Article in Special Issue
Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China
Previous Article in Journal
The Spatiotemporal Trend of City Parks in Mainland China between 1981 and 2014: Implications for the Promotion of Leisure Time Physical Activity and Planning
Previous Article in Special Issue
Risk Assessment of Metals in Urban Soils from a Typical Industrial City, Suzhou, Eastern China
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1155; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101155

Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data

College of Information System and Management, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), 2628 BX Delft, The Netherlands
Faculty of Applied Economics, Antwerp Research Group on Safety and Security (ARGoSS), University Antwerpen, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
Centre for Economics and Corporate Sustainability (CEDON), KULeuven, Campus Brussels, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Environmental Risk Assessment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2315 KB, uploaded 12 October 2017]   |  


The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chemical Plant Environmental Protection; Stackelberg Security Games; source estimation methods; historical monitoring data; game theory Chemical Plant Environmental Protection; Stackelberg Security Games; source estimation methods; historical monitoring data; game theory

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, Z.; Chen, B.; Reniers, G.; Zhang, L.; Qiu, S.; Qiu, X. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1155.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top