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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101094

Removal of Phenolic Compounds from Water Using Sewage Sludge-Based Activated Carbon Adsorption: A Review

1
Environmental Engineering Department, University of Dammam, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia
2
Chemical Engineering Department, Mutah University, Karak 61710, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Abstract

Due to their industrial relevance, phenolic compounds (PC) are amongst the most common organic pollutants found in many industrial wastewater effluents. The potential detrimental health and environmental impacts of PC necessitate their removal from wastewater to meet regulatory discharge standards to ensure meeting sustainable development goals. In recent decades, one of the promising, cost-effective and environmentally benign techniques for removal of PC from water streams has been adsorption onto sewage sludge (SS)-based activated carbon (SBAC). This is attributed to the excellent adsorptive characteristics of SBAC and also because the approach serves as a strategy for sustainable management of huge quantities of different types of SS that are in continual production globally. This paper reviews conversion of SS into activated carbons and their utilization for the removal of PC from water streams. Wide ranges of topics which include SBAC production processes, physicochemical characteristics of SBAC, factors affecting PC adsorption onto SBAC and their uptake mechanisms as well as the regeneration potential of spent SBAC are covered. Although chemical activation techniques produce better SBAC, yet more research work is needed to harness advances in material science to improve the functional groups and textural properties of SBAC as well as the low performance of physical activation methods. Studies focusing on PC adsorptive performance on SBAC using continuous mode (that are more relevant for industrial applications) in both single and multi-pollutant aqueous systems to cover wide range of PC are needed. Also, the potentials of different techniques for regeneration of spent SBAC used for adsorption of PC need to be assessed in relation to overall economic evaluation within realm of environmental sustainability using life cycle assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic compounds; wastewater treatment plants; sewage sludge management; activated carbon production; activated carbon adsorption; pollution control phenolic compounds; wastewater treatment plants; sewage sludge management; activated carbon production; activated carbon adsorption; pollution control
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Mu’azu, N.D.; Jarrah, N.; Zubair, M.; Alagha, O. Removal of Phenolic Compounds from Water Using Sewage Sludge-Based Activated Carbon Adsorption: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1094.

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