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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 73; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010073

Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

1
Departamento de Atención a la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM) Unidad Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, 04900 Ciudad de México, Mexico
2
Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, (UACH), Campus I Av. Universidad s/n, 31000 Chihuahua, Mexico
3
Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango (UJED), Predio Canoas s/n, 34000 Durango, Mexico
4
Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG), Sierra mojada 950, 44340 Guadalajara Jalisco, Mexico
5
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Anáhuac Norte, Av. Universidad Anáhuac 46, 52786 Estado de Mexico, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Dórea
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 12 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%), TF 4–5 (45.6%) and TF 6–7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%), TF 4–5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-perception; dental fluorosis; Thylstrup and Fejerkov index; adolescents self-perception; dental fluorosis; Thylstrup and Fejerkov index; adolescents
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Molina-Frechero, N.; Nevarez-Rascón, M.; Nevarez-Rascón, A.; González-González, R.; Irigoyen-Camacho, M.E.; Sánchez-Pérez, L.; López-Verdin, S.; Bologna-Molina, R. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 73.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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