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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 20; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010020

Hotspot Identification for Shanghai Expressways Using the Quantitative Risk Assessment Method

1,2,* and 1,*
Department of Traffic Engineering and Key Laboratory of Road & Traffic Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, 4800 Cao’an Road, Shanghai 201804, China
Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Urban Traffic Technologies, SiPaiLou #2, Nanjing 210096, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Suren Chen
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Injury Prevention)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2281 KB, uploaded 27 December 2016]   |  


Hotspot identification (HSID) is the first and key step of the expressway safety management process. This study presents a new HSID method using the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) technique. Crashes that are likely to happen for a specific site are treated as the risk. The aggregation of the crash occurrence probability for all exposure vehicles is estimated based on the empirical Bayesian method. As for the consequences of crashes, crashes may not only cause direct losses (e.g., occupant injuries and property damages) but also result in indirect losses. The indirect losses are expressed by the extra delays calculated using the deterministic queuing diagram method. The direct losses and indirect losses are uniformly monetized to be considered as the consequences of this risk. The potential costs of crashes, as a criterion to rank high-risk sites, can be explicitly expressed as the sum of the crash probability for all passing vehicles and the corresponding consequences of crashes. A case study on the urban expressways of Shanghai is presented. The results show that the new QRA method for HSID enables the identification of a set of high-risk sites that truly reveal the potential crash costs to society. View Full-Text
Keywords: expressway; hotspot identification; crash; risk assessment; potential crash costs; empirical Bayesian expressway; hotspot identification; crash; risk assessment; potential crash costs; empirical Bayesian

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, C.; Li, T.; Sun, J.; Chen, F. Hotspot Identification for Shanghai Expressways Using the Quantitative Risk Assessment Method. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 20.

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