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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 890; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090890

The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development

1
Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan 736, Taiwan
2
Department of Family Medicine, Da-Chien General Hospital, Miaoli 237, Taiwan
3
General Education Center, Ta Tung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan
4
Department of Occupational Medicine, Tainan Municipal Hospital, Tainan 701, Taiwan
5
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [534 KB, uploaded 9 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms “enterovirus 71” and “epidemiology” or “pathogenesis” or “molecular epidemiology” or “vaccine” in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing. View Full-Text
Keywords: hand-foot-mouth disease; herpangina; enterovirus 71; pathogenesis; virology hand-foot-mouth disease; herpangina; enterovirus 71; pathogenesis; virology
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Chang, P.-C.; Chen, S.-C.; Chen, K.-T. The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 890.

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