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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 831; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080831

Co-Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life and the Healthcare/Welfare/Social Costs of Disordered Sleep: A Rapid Review

1
Center of Sleep Medicine, Genoa 16132, Italy
2
Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa, Genoa 16132, Italy
3
Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa 16148, Italy
4
Department of Health Sciences, Postgraduate School in Occupational Medicine, University of Genoa and Occupational Medicine Unit, IRCCS AOU San Martino IST, Genoa 16132, Italy
5
Department of Public Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 10 June 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [317 KB, uploaded 18 August 2016]

Abstract

Sleep disorders are frequent (18%–23%) and constitute a major risk factor for psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal co-morbidity and mortality. Low social status or income, unemployment, life events such as divorce, negative lifestyle habits, and professional requirements (e.g., shift work) are often associated with sleep problems. Sleep disorders affect the quality of life and impair both professional and non-professional activities. Excessive daytime drowsiness resulting from sleep disorders impairs efficiency and safety at work or on the road, and increases the risk of accidents. Poor sleep (either professional or voluntary) has detrimental effects comparable to those of major sleep disorders, but is often neglected. The high incidence and direct/indirect healthcare and welfare costs of sleep disorders and poor sleep currently constitute a major medical problem. Investigation, monitoring and strategies are needed in order to prevent/reduce the effects of these disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep disorders; quality of life; public health; mortality; morbidity; cardiovascular disorders; cancer; accidents sleep disorders; quality of life; public health; mortality; morbidity; cardiovascular disorders; cancer; accidents
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garbarino, S.; Lanteri, P.; Durando, P.; Magnavita, N.; Sannita, W.G. Co-Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life and the Healthcare/Welfare/Social Costs of Disordered Sleep: A Rapid Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 831.

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