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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 827; doi:10.3390/ijerph13080827

Surface Water Impacted by Rural Activities Induces Genetic Toxicity Related to Recombinagenic Events in Vivo

1
Laboratory of Genetic Toxicity (TOXIGEN), Post-Graduation Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology Applied to Health, Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Canoas 92425-900, Brazil
2
Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, UFRGS, Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil
3
UniLaSalle, Canoas 92010-000, Brazil
4
Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, Post-Graduation Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology Applied to Health, Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Canoas 92425-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José G. Dórea
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
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Abstract

This investigation assessed the interaction of surface water samples with DNA to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize their mutagenic and/or recombinagenic activity. Samples were obtained at three different sites along the Tocantins River (Tocantins State, Brazil). The area has withstood the impact mainly of rural activities, which release different chemical compounds in the environment. The Drosophila melanogaster Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) was performed in standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses. SMART is useful for the detection of mutational and recombinational events induced by genotoxins of direct and indirect action. Results demonstrated that samples collected in both seasons were able to induce increments on the mutant spot frequencies in the larvae of the HB cross. Genotoxicity was related to a massive recombinagenic activity. The positive responses ascribed to only the HB cross means that it is linked to pro-genotoxins requiring metabolic activation. The SMART wing test in Drosophila melanogaster was shown to be highly sensitive to detect genotoxic agents present in the aquatic environment impacted by agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: agriculture; genotoxicity; somatic cells; surface water; SMART agriculture; genotoxicity; somatic cells; surface water; SMART
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Soares Neto, J.L.; de Carli, R.F.; Kotzal, Q.S.G.; Latroni, F.B.; Lehmann, M.; Dias, J.F.; de Souza, C.T.; Niekraszewicz, L.A.B.; da Silva, F.R.; da Silva, J.; Dihl, R.R. Surface Water Impacted by Rural Activities Induces Genetic Toxicity Related to Recombinagenic Events in Vivo. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 827.

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