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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 701; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070701

Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to “Cellular Life” in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure

1
Environmental Resources and Technologies, Department Health and Environment, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Tulln 3430, Austria
2
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy
3
CNR-Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, Napoli 80124, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irena Cosic
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 12 July 2016
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Abstract

Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of “cellular life” to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995–2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; cell proliferation; association analysis; electromagnetic fields; in vitro apoptosis; cell proliferation; association analysis; electromagnetic fields; in vitro
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Simkó, M.; Remondini, D.; Zeni, O.; Scarfi, M.R. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to “Cellular Life” in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 701.

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