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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 678; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070678

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Adversely Associated with Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

1
Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
2
Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Zhongxiao Branch, Taipei 11556, Taiwan
3
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Taipei City Hospital, Songde Branch, Taipei 11080, Taiwan
4
Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
5
Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital, Yangming Branch, Taipei 11146, Taiwan
6
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan
7
School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 4 July 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [495 KB, uploaded 4 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurobehavioral conditions. Evidence of the negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on mental health has not been convincing, although a few studies have found an association between high SSB levels and attention problems in children. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that SSB consumption is associated with ADHD among children. Doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases (n = 173) and non-ADHD controls (n = 159) between age 4 to 15 were recruited. SSB consumption, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the children, as well as of their mothers’ characteristics during pregnancy, were collected using a questionnaire. Blood lead levels and polymorphisms of two commonly verified dopaminergic-related genes (the D4 dopamine receptor gene DRD4 and the dopamine transporter gene DAT1) were also analyzed. There was a dose-response relationship between SSB consumption and ADHD. After covariates were adjusted, children who consumed SSBs at moderate levels and high levels had 1.36 and 3.69 odds, respectively, of having ADHD, compared with those who did not consume SSBs (p for trend < 0.05). Similar results were obtained when females were excluded. Our findings highlighted the adverse correlation between SSB consumption and ADHD and indicated a dose-response effect even after covariates were adjusted. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; sugar-sweetened beverage; artificial food coloring; preservative; case-control; blood lead level; gene polymorphism; children ADHD; sugar-sweetened beverage; artificial food coloring; preservative; case-control; blood lead level; gene polymorphism; children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, C.-J.; Du, J.-C.; Chiou, H.-C.; Feng, C.-C.; Chung, M.-Y.; Yang, W.; Chen, Y.-S.; Chien, L.-C.; Hwang, B.; Chen, M.-L. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Adversely Associated with Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 678.

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