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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 581; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060581

Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

1
Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
2
School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
3
School of Public Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
4
Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nelson Gouveia
Received: 25 March 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 June 2016 / Published: 13 June 2016
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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150–299 m, 1161 lived 300–999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans. View Full-Text
Keywords: ambient air pollution; distance to road; cardiac function; African Americans; ejection fraction; E-wave velocity; isovolumic relaxation time; left atrial diameter index; pulmonary artery systolic pressure ambient air pollution; distance to road; cardiac function; African Americans; ejection fraction; E-wave velocity; isovolumic relaxation time; left atrial diameter index; pulmonary artery systolic pressure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Weaver, A.M.; Wellenius, G.A.; Wu, W.-C.; Hickson, D.A.; Kamalesh, M.; Wang, Y. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 581.

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