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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 496; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050496

Opportunities for Environmental Noise Mapping in Saudi Arabia: A Case of Traffic Noise Annoyance in an Urban Area in Jeddah City

1
Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Occupational Health & Air Pollution, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, 165 El-Horrya Avenue, Alexandria, Egypt
Academic Editor: Kim Natasha Dirks
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract

As the traffic and other environmental noise generating activities are growing in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), adverse health and other impacts are expected to develop. The management of such problem involves many actions, of which noise mapping has been proven to be a helpful approach. The objective of the current study was to test the adequacy of the available data in KSA municipalities for generating urban noise maps and to verify the applicability of available environmental noise mapping and noise annoyance models for KSA. Therefore, noise maps were produced for Al-Fayha District in Jeddah City, KSA using commercially available noise mapping software and applying the French national computation method “NMPB” for traffic noise. Most of the data required for traffic noise prediction and annoyance analysis were available, either in the Municipality GIS department or in other governmental authorities. The predicted noise levels during the three time periods, i.e., daytime, evening, and nighttime, were found higher than the maximum recommended levels established in KSA environmental noise standards. Annoyance analysis revealed that high percentages of the District inhabitants were highly annoyed, depending on the type of planning zone and period of interest. These results reflect the urgent need to consider environmental noise reduction in KSA national plans. The accuracy of the predicted noise levels and the availability of most of the necessary data should encourage further studies on the use of noise mapping as part of noise reduction plans. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental noise; traffic noise; noise mapping; public noise annoyance; façade noise levels; grid noise calculation; Jeddah; Saudi Arabia environmental noise; traffic noise; noise mapping; public noise annoyance; façade noise levels; grid noise calculation; Jeddah; Saudi Arabia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zytoon, M.A. Opportunities for Environmental Noise Mapping in Saudi Arabia: A Case of Traffic Noise Annoyance in an Urban Area in Jeddah City. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 496.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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