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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 318; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030318

The Inflammation Response to DEHP through PPARγ in Endometrial Cells

1
Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
2
Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
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Abstract

Epidemiological studies have shown the possible link between phthalates and endometrium-related gynecological diseases, however the molecular mechanism(s) behind this is/are still unclear. In the study, both primary cultured endometrial cells and an endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line (Ishikawa) were recruited to investigate the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) at human-relevant concentrations. The results showed that DEHP did not affect the viability of either type of cell, which showed different responses to inflammation. Primary cultured cells showed stronger inflammatory reactions than the Ishikawa cell line. The expression of inflammatory factors was induced both at the mRNA and protein levels, however the inflammation did not induce the progress of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as the protein levels of EMT markers were not affected after exposure to either cell type. Further study showed that the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) wereup-regulated after exposure. In all, our study showed that human-relevant concentrations of DEHP could elicit the inflammatory response in primary cultured endometrial cells rather than in Ishikawa cell line. PPARγ may act as the mediating receptor in the inflammation reaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; endometrium; Ishikawa cells; inflammation; PPARγ di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; endometrium; Ishikawa cells; inflammation; PPARγ
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, Q.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chi, Y.-L.; Dong, S. The Inflammation Response to DEHP through PPARγ in Endometrial Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 318.

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