Next Article in Journal
Meta-Analysis of Cardiac Mortality in Three Cohorts of Carbon Black Production Workers
Next Article in Special Issue
Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China
Previous Article in Journal
The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 299; doi:10.3390/ijerph13030299

Mortality during a Large-Scale Heat Wave by Place, Demographic Group, Internal and External Causes of Death, and Building Climate Zone

1
Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
2
Occupational Health Branch, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jan C. Semenza
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Climate Change and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2021 KB, uploaded 10 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Mortality increases during periods of elevated heat. Identification of vulnerable subgroups by demographics, causes of death, and geographic regions, including deaths occurring at home, is needed to inform public health prevention efforts. We calculated mortality relative risks (RRs) and excess deaths associated with a large-scale California heat wave in 2006, comparing deaths during the heat wave with reference days. For total (all-place) and at-home mortality, we examined risks by demographic factors, internal and external causes of death, and building climate zones. During the heat wave, 582 excess deaths occurred, a 5% increase over expected (RR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.08). Sixty-six percent of excess deaths were at home (RR = 1.12, CI 1.07–1.16). Total mortality risk was higher among those aged 35–44 years than ≥65, and among Hispanics than whites. Deaths from external causes increased more sharply (RR = 1.18, CI 1.10–1.27) than from internal causes (RR = 1.04, CI 1.02–1.07). Geographically, risk varied by building climate zone; the highest risks of at-home death occurred in the northernmost coastal zone (RR = 1.58, CI 1.01–2.48) and the southernmost zone of California’s Central Valley (RR = 1.43, CI 1.21–1.68). Heat wave mortality risk varied across subpopulations, and some patterns of vulnerability differed from those previously identified. Public health efforts should also address at-home mortality, non-elderly adults, external causes, and at-risk geographic regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat wave; mortality; relative risk; excess deaths; vulnerabilities; at-home; external cause of death; internal cause of death; building climate zone heat wave; mortality; relative risk; excess deaths; vulnerabilities; at-home; external cause of death; internal cause of death; building climate zone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Joe, L.; Hoshiko, S.; Dobraca, D.; Jackson, R.; Smorodinsky, S.; Smith, D.; Harnly, M. Mortality during a Large-Scale Heat Wave by Place, Demographic Group, Internal and External Causes of Death, and Building Climate Zone. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 299.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top