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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1251; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121251

Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

1
Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Rosenau Hall CB7440, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2
Lineberger Comprehensive Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
3
Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
4
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Chapel Hill Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Linda Bauld and Rosemary Hiscock
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control and Priority Groups)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [274 KB, uploaded 16 December 2016]

Abstract

To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. View Full-Text
Keywords: tobacco; recruitment; low-income; GLB; transgender; African American; Hispanic tobacco; recruitment; low-income; GLB; transgender; African American; Hispanic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brodar, K.E.; Hall, M.G.; Butler, E.N.; Parada, H.; Stein-Seroussi, A.; Hanley, S.; Brewer, N.T. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1251.

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